When working with spatial data, it is often necessary to calculate the concave hull of a set of points. The concave hull is a polygon that encloses the points while minimizing the area of the polygon. In Python, there are several ways to solve the 2D alpha shape concave hull problem. In this article, we will explore three different approaches and determine which one is the most efficient.
Approach 1: Using the scipy library
The scipy library provides a function called
alpha_shape that can be used to calculate the concave hull of a set of points. This function takes two parameters: the points and the alpha value. The alpha value determines the level of detail of the resulting polygon. A smaller alpha value will result in a more detailed polygon, while a larger alpha value will result in a simpler polygon.
from scipy.spatial import Delaunay import numpy as np def alpha_shape(points, alpha): tri = Delaunay(points) edges = set() def add_edge(i, j): if (i, j) in edges or (j, i) in edges: return edges.add((i, j)) for ia, ib, ic in tri.vertices: pa = points[ia] pb = points[ib] pc = points[ic] if np.linalg.norm(pa - pb) < alpha and np.linalg.norm(pb - pc) < alpha and np.linalg.norm(pc - pa) < alpha: add_edge(ia, ib) add_edge(ib, ic) add_edge(ic, ia) return edges
To use this function, you need to pass in a list of points and the desired alpha value. The function will return a set of edges that form the concave hull.
Approach 2: Using the shapely library
The shapely library provides a more high-level interface for working with geometric objects. It includes a
concave_hull function that can be used to calculate the concave hull of a set of points.
from shapely.geometry import MultiPoint def concave_hull(points, alpha): multi_point = MultiPoint(points) hull = multi_point.convex_hull buffer = hull.buffer(-alpha) concave_hull = buffer.simplify(alpha) return concave_hull
This function takes a list of points and the desired alpha value as parameters. It returns a shapely geometry object representing the concave hull.
Approach 3: Using the alphashape library
The alphashape library provides a simple and efficient way to calculate the concave hull of a set of points. It includes a
alphashape function that takes a list of points and the desired alpha value as parameters.
from alphashape import alphashape def calculate_concave_hull(points, alpha): hull = alphashape(points, alpha) return hull
This function returns a shapely geometry object representing the concave hull.
After exploring these three approaches, it is clear that the alphashape library provides the most efficient solution. It is simple to use and produces accurate results. Additionally, it is faster than the other two approaches, making it the best choice for solving the 2D alpha shape concave hull problem in Python.