Assertions in selenium python

When working with Selenium in Python, it is common to encounter situations where we need to verify certain conditions or behaviors in our web application. This is where assertions come in handy. Assertions allow us to check if a given condition is true and raise an exception if it is not.

Option 1: Using the assert statement

The simplest way to perform assertions in Python is by using the assert statement. This statement takes a condition as its argument and raises an AssertionError if the condition is false.

# Sample code
from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Chrome()

# Assert that the page title is correct
assert driver.title == "Example Domain"

# Assert that a specific element is present on the page
assert driver.find_element_by_id("myElement").is_displayed()

Using the assert statement is straightforward and provides a concise way to perform assertions in Python. However, it has a downside: if an assertion fails, the program will terminate immediately, and the AssertionError will be raised. This can be problematic if we want to continue executing the remaining code or perform additional checks.

Option 2: Using the unittest module

If we need more control over the assertion process and want to perform multiple checks without terminating the program, we can use the unittest module. This module provides a set of assertion methods that can be used within test cases.

# Sample code
import unittest
from selenium import webdriver

class MyTestCase(unittest.TestCase):
    def setUp(self):
        self.driver = webdriver.Chrome()

    def test_page_title(self):
        self.assertEqual(self.driver.title, "Example Domain")

    def test_element_presence(self):

if __name__ == "__main__":

By using the unittest module, we can define test cases as methods within a test class. Each test case can contain multiple assertions, and the module takes care of running them and reporting the results. This approach allows us to perform more complex test scenarios and provides better control over the execution flow.

Option 3: Using a custom assertion library

If the built-in assertion methods do not meet our needs, we can create our own custom assertion library. This approach gives us complete flexibility in defining the assertion logic and allows us to tailor it to our specific requirements.

# Sample code
from selenium import webdriver

def assert_page_title(driver, expected_title):
    assert driver.title == expected_title, f"Expected title: {expected_title}, Actual title: {driver.title}"

def assert_element_presence(driver, element_id):
    assert driver.find_element_by_id(element_id).is_displayed(), f"Element with ID {element_id} is not displayed"

driver = webdriver.Chrome()

# Custom assertions
assert_page_title(driver, "Example Domain")
assert_element_presence(driver, "myElement")

Creating a custom assertion library allows us to define our own assertion functions with specific error messages and behavior. This can be useful when we have complex conditions to check or need to perform additional actions before raising an exception.

After considering the three options, the best choice depends on the specific requirements of the project. If simplicity and immediate termination on assertion failure are desired, the assert statement is a good choice. If more control and flexibility are needed, the unittest module provides a comprehensive solution. Finally, if custom assertion logic is required, creating a custom assertion library is the way to go.

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